The (Shockingly Low) Literacy Rate of Jews in Eastern Europe https://mosaicmagazine.com/observation/religion-holidays/2019/03/the-shockingly-low-literacy-rate-of-jews-in-eastern-europe/

There were many more illiterate Jews in the Tsarist empire than we tend to think there were.

March 6, 2019 | Philologos
About the author: Philologos, the renowned Jewish-language columnist, appears twice a month in Mosaic. Questions for him may be sent to his email address by clicking here.

From The Feast of Sukkot by Shalom Koboshvili. Alamy.

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