In the ruins of the ancient city of Limyra, in southwestern Turkey, archaeologists have uncovered apparent evidence of a Roman-era Jewish community. Megan Sauter writes:
Limyra was first settled in the 6th century BCE. During the 4th century BCE, it was the largest city in Lycia (a region on the southern coast of Anatolia). . . . Several centuries later, in the Byzantine period, Limyra served as the seat of a bishop. . . . [I]t appears that there was also a Jewish presence [in the city]. In a building recently excavated by Martin Seyer, chancel screens with Jewish symbols—menorahs, a shofar, and a lulav (palm branch)—have been uncovered. In a later period, these screens were broken and reused as paving stones.
In the same building, close to the discovery spot of the chancel screens, is a water basin. With plastered walls and a floor of marble slabs, this basin was fed by rainwater. A low stone bench rests against one of the walls. Could this basin have served as a mikveh, a Jewish ritual bath?
With its Jewish features, could this structure have been a synagogue? Martin Seyer clarifies that although it is not possible to create a precise stratigraphy for this building because of the high groundwater level, there are still some reasons to interpret this structure as a synagogue. . . . Previous to [the building’s] discovery, the only other indicator that there were Jewish inhabitants at Limyra was a solitary Greek inscription on a rock tomb that reads, “Tomb of Iudas.”