Remnants of a World War I Battle Found in Israel

While archaeologists working in Israel usually expect to come across objects from the biblical and talmudic eras, an excavation in the central part of the country uncovered something far more recent but still significant. Yori Yalon writes:

Remnants of a World War I battle between British and Turkish forces were discovered recently in an archaeological dig near [the city of] Rosh Ha’ayin. The findings, which include dozens of bullet casings, mortar shells, and military paraphernalia, were uncovered during an Israel Antiquities Authority dig carried out ahead of the paving of a road connecting Rosh Ha’ayin to the nearby Afek Industrial Park. . . .

The discovery that a battle had taken place at the site was made after a broken piece of insignia from a British beret was found. Bullets and casings from an Ottoman rifle were soon found nearby. . . .

Yossi Elisha, the director of the dig, [said], “These findings are evidence of one of the major battles that occurred in the land of Israel between British and Turkish forces in World War I.”

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More about: Archaeology, History & Ideas, Ottoman Empire, World War I

The U.S. Must Maintain the Kurdish Enclave in Eastern Syria

Aug. 16 2018

Presently only two rebel enclaves remain in Syria, and both are dependent on outside powers: one in the northwest, under Turkish control, and an area in the east controlled by the U.S.-backed and Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). Only by continuing its support for the latter can America prevent Iranian domination of Syria, writes Jonathan Spyer. Officials in Washington have made various statements suggesting that the White House has no intention of ceding the country to Iran, but haven’t clarified what this means in practice:

Actions . . . are a better guide than sentiments. And it appears that the SDF leaders remain skeptical regarding America’s long-term plans. Last week, the first direct negotiations took place between their representatives and those of the Assad regime, in Damascus.

It is not quite clear where things are heading. But Israel’s interest in this is clear. Maintenance of the east Syrian enclave and the [U.S.] base in Tanf means keeping a substantial physical obstacle to the Iranian hope for a contiguous corridor [connecting it to Lebanon via Syria and Iraq]. It would also prevent an overall Iranian triumph in the war and give the West a place at the table in any substantive political negotiation over Syria’s future. . . .

Specifically, efforts should be made to ensure a formal U.S. declaration of a no-fly zone for regime and regime-allied aircraft east of the Euphrates. This move, reminiscent of the no-fly zone declared over Iraqi Kurdistan after the Gulf War of 1991, would with one stroke ensure the continued viability of the SDF-controlled area. There should also be a formal recognition of the SDF zone, or the “Democratic Federation of Northern Syria,” as it is formally known. This entity is not seeking independence from Damascus, so Western concerns regarding the formal breakup of Syria need not be raised by such a move.

As the strategic contest between Iran and its allies and the U.S. and its allies in the Middle East moves into high gear, it is essential that the West maintain its alliances and investments and behaves, and is seen to behave, as a credible and loyal patron and ally.

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Read more at Jerusalem Institute for Strategic Studies

More about: Iran, Israeli Security, Kurds, Syrian civil war, U.S. Foreign policy