The Quaker-Turned-Jew Who Briefly Became the First U.S. Consul to Jerusalem

March 25 2019

Born in 1798 to a respected Quaker family in Pennsylvania, Warder Cresson was attracted as an adult to various new Protestant sects, and took an especially keen interest in the Hebrew Bible. In 1844 he set off for the Land of Israel, having secured the position of American consul to Jerusalem, although by the time he arrived he found a letter revoking the appointment. Alan Dowty tells his story:

[In the 1840s Cresson] was drawn increasingly to Judaism, coming into contact with Rabbi Isaac Leeser of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, an important Jewish leader of his time. . . . Like most devout Christians, Cresson read the Old Testament (that is, the Jewish Bible) closely; unlike most, he came to feel that it was definitive and [more authoritative than] the Christian scriptures that came later. [While] Cresson embraced the goal of the Ingathering of the Exiles, he rejected the attendant notion that this required Jews to convert to Christianity. . . .

In March 1848, after nearly four years in Jerusalem, Cresson converted to Judaism and took the name Michael Boaz Israel ben Avraham. Dowty continues:

Cresson returned to Philadelphia in September of the same year, eager to bring his family into [his new faith]. But his wife . . . and most of his family, claiming that Cresson was clearly out of his mind, lodged a charge of lunacy and obtained a verdict of insanity from a sheriff’s jury.

Cresson appealed the verdict and remained unconfined pending trial, which took place two years later, in May 1851. . . . Cresson’s lawyer argued that the basis of the lunacy claim was what would today be called anti-Semitism, [accusing Mrs. Cresson of] “endeavoring to stigmatize the venerable faith of Israel.” In his charge to the jury, the judge instructed them not to take religious beliefs into account in determining whether Cresson was insane. Accordingly, the jury took very little time to declare Cresson sane. The case was widely publicized at the time and the outcome was applauded by most major newspapers. It is considered a landmark in the defense of religious liberty.

Cresson, unsurprisingly, divorced his wife. He quickly returned to Jerusalem, marrying a woman in the Sephardi community and fathering two children (neither survived beyond childhood). . . . In his later years he tried to further pre-Zionist Jewish settlement by building an agricultural colony in the Valley of Refaim, the area later developed as Jerusalem’s German Colony. But it appears that he was never able to raise the necessary funds.

Welcome to Mosaic

Register now to get two more stories free

Register Now

Already a subscriber? Sign in now

Read more at Moment

More about: Conversion, Freedom of Religion, History & Ideas, Judaism, Quakers, US-Israel relations


The U.S. Tells the Truth about the Jewish Residents of the West Bank, and about International Law

Nov. 19 2019

Yesterday, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced his department’s conclusion that the “establishment of Israeli civilian settlements in the West Bank is not per-se inconsistent with international law.” He stressed that the decision would not prejudice any future agreements, and pointed to the imprudence of reducing Israel’s conflict with the Palestinians to a matter of international law, instead affirming the long-held U.S. position that only negotiations between the parties could bring about a solution. Caroline Glick comments:

Sign up to read more

You've read all your free articles for this month


Sign up now for unlimited access to the best in Jewish thought, culture, and politics

Already have an account? Log in now

Read more at Caroline Glick

More about: International Law, Settlements, US-Israel relations, West Bank