The beginning of the First Crusade in 1096 ushered in a new era of persecution and violence for the Jews of France and Germany, after a few centuries of relative tranquility and economic and intellectual flourishing. Perhaps, then, it is no surprise that Ashkenazi Jewish writers from the 12th century onward display increasing contempt and derision toward their Christian neighbors. David Berger, one of the foremost historians of this subject, notes how medieval Jewish works internalized the Christian stereotype of Jews as ugly and physically deficient, even as they claimed this as evidence of Jewish superiority.
What Did Medieval Jews Expect for Their Christian Neighbors?
Against Iran, Israel Remains the Last Line of Defense
With the Islamic Republic drawing ever closer to producing nuclear weapons, and the United States increasingly disengaged from the Middle East, only the Jewish state has the will, ability, and courage to stop the ayatollahs. So argues Reuel Marc Gerecht: