How Medieval Rabbis Influenced Their Christian Contemporaries’ Bible Commentaries

The 11th and 12th centuries constituted a golden age of Jewish biblical scholarship in Europe with Rashi, his grandson Shmuel ben Meir (Rashbam), Abraham ibn Ezra, and others writing glosses that are still studied today. In her new book In Hebreo: The Victorine Exegesis of the Bible in the Light of its Northern French Jewish Sources, Montse Leyra-Curia explores how these works likely shaped Christian clergy’s understanding of the Hebrew Bible. Martin Lockshin writes in his review:

The Christian world also produced crucial and innovative Bible commentaries in the very same years and in the very same country: France. Rashi and Rashbam were born and lived in France; ibn Ezra moved there later in life and produced many Bible commentaries there. [Around the same time], Christians affiliated with the Abbey of St. Victor, a kind of monastery-university on the outskirts of Paris, produced pathbreaking Bible commentaries. The most famous of these Christians were Hugh of St. Victor and Andrew of St. Victor. For almost a century, modern scholars have noticed the similarities between the commentaries of Rashi, Rashbam, and ibn Ezra, on the one hand, and the Latin Bible commentaries of the Victorines, [as these clergymen are known], on the other. . . .

Although Hugh and Andrew never mention any living Jewish writer by name, in their Bible commentaries they frequently refer to what the “Iudei” (Jews) or the “Hebrei” (Hebrews) say about a biblical verse. Sometimes they record the common Christian interpretation and then correct it, saying that the text “in hebreo” (in Hebrew) really means something else.

Leyra-Curia . . . does not believe their Hebrew was good enough either for them to have had their own independent understanding of the biblical Hebrew text or for them to have read and understood the Bible commentaries of Rashi, Rashbam, and others. [Furthermore], most of their references are to Jewish interpretations that first appeared in the 11th and 12th centuries. . . .  Leyra-Curia reasonably concludes that Christians like Hugh and Andrew talked about the meaning of biblical verses with living Jews in northern France.

Which Jews? Leyra-Curia . . . finds that Hugh and Andrew cite or agree with interpretations found in Rashbam’s Torah commentary more often than with those found in any other Jewish Bible commentary. She concludes: “There is a high probability that Rashbam himself taught . . .  interpretations to Hugh or to both Victorines.” From his own writings, she adds, we know that Rashbam spent time in Paris. He also occasionally refers to conversations he had with Christians who, he claims, “admitted” that what he said made sense. . . . [I]n 400 pages of meticulous scholarship, she builds a strong case that Rashbam “talked Torah” with Christian clergy.  Presumably he was not the only Jew to do so.

Read more at Canadian Jewish News

More about: Abraham ibn Ezra, Hebrew Bible, History & Ideas, Jewish-Christian relations, Middle Ages, Rashi

The IDF’s First Investigation of Its Conduct on October 7 Is Out

For several months, the Israel Defense Forces has been investigating its own actions on and preparedness for October 7, with an eye to understanding its failures. The first of what are expected to be many reports stemming from this investigation was released yesterday, and it showed a series of colossal strategic and tactical errors surrounding the battle at Kibbutz Be’eri, writes Emanuel Fabian. The probe, he reports, was led by Maj. Gen. (res.) Mickey Edelstein.

Edelstein and his team—none of whom had any involvement in the events themselves, according to the IDF—spent hundreds of hours investigating the onslaught and battle at Be’eri, reviewing every possible source of information, from residents’ WhatsApp messages to both Israeli and Hamas radio communications, as well as surveillance videos, aerial footage, interviews of survivors and those who fought, plus visits to the scene.

There will be a series of further reports issued this summer.

IDF chief Halevi in a statement issued alongside the probe said that while this was just the first investigation into the onslaught, which does not reflect the entire picture of October 7, it “clearly illustrates the magnitude of the failure and the dimensions of the disaster that befell the residents of the south who protected their families with their bodies for many hours, and the IDF was not there to protect them.” . . .

The IDF hopes to present all battle investigations by the end of August.

The IDF’s probes are strictly limited to its own conduct. For a broader look at what went wrong, Israel will have to wait for a formal state commission of inquiry to be appointed—which happens to be the subject of this month’s featured essay in Mosaic.

Read more at Times of Israel

More about: Gaza War 2023, IDF, Israel & Zionism, October 7