Responding to Crises of Faith in the Orthodox World

Feb. 22 2019

To many, the term “religious apologetics” suggests sermons in defense of dogma. Taken more broadly, however, the term can apply to the most sophisticated and well-reasoned arguments in favor of faith. To Eli Stern, the best examples are attempts to reconcile timeless religious beliefs with contemporary ways of thinking, which would include the works of some of the greatest Jewish philosophers, from Saadiah Gaon in the 10th century, to Moses Maimonides in the 12th, to Joseph B. Soloveitchik in the 20th. Stern argues for a revival of apologetic writing within his own community of contemporary Ḥaredim:

Ḥaredi youngsters and adults alike are troubled by a growing dissonance between the realities of daily life and the demands of their religious system. These individuals, often sincere and religiously devout questioners, are distressed by an apparent lack of honest and genuine attention to their struggles. Too often, approaching a rabbi or educator with these issues leads the seeker to a sense of misunderstanding and miscommunication. Not only does such an interaction fail to allay the questioner’s anxieties; it will likely lead to a greater sense of alienation. . . .

As in every generation, ours too requires thinkers and writers to explain the Torah in the language of the moment. [When it comes to] outreach to secular Jews, Ḥaredim have some awareness of methods and approaches by which Judaism should be presented. By contrast, I am unaware of similar discourse around explaining the faith within our own communities, to our children and students, and moreover to ourselves. . . .

In addition to discourses and philosophical works, Stern also sees literature as a means of responding to crises of faith:

Literature can communicate to readers that . . . religiosity is not merely the methodical application of dry principles, but man’s encounter with God. [While many traditional Jewish texts] speak generally of obligations and beliefs, the human side [of religion], the experiences of the people who live it, can be revealed in literature. The reader is exposed to the emotional world behind the ritual practice and discovers in that world the legitimate tensions and challenges of even the most devout. Literature . . . provides an opportunity for the reader to enter the protagonist’s internal world, with the dilemmas, questions, and emotions that characterize a life of observance. A good story can serve the function of apologetics without apologizing.

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More about: Jewish literature, Judaism, Religion & Holidays, Ultra-Orthodox

The Syrian Civil War May Be Coming to an End, but Three New Wars Are Rising There

March 26 2019

With both Islamic State and the major insurgent forces largely defeated, Syria now stands divided into three parts. Some 60 percent of the country, in the west and south, is in the hands of Bashar al-Assad and his allies. Another 30 percent, in the northeast, is in the hands of the mostly Kurdish, and American-backed, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). The final 10 percent, in the northwest, is held by Sunni jihadists, some affiliated with al-Qaeda, under Turkish protection. But, writes Jonathan Spyer, the situation is far from stable. Kurds, likely linked to the SDF, have been waging an insurgency in the Turkish areas, and that’s only one of the problems:

The U.S.- and SDF-controlled area east of the Euphrates is also witnessing the stirrings of internal insurgency directed from outside. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, “236 [SDF] fighters, civilians, oil workers, and officials” have been killed since August 2018 in incidents unrelated to the frontline conflict against Islamic State. . . . The SDF blames Turkey for these actions, and for earlier killings such as that of a prominent local Kurdish official. . . . There are other plausible suspects within Syria, however, including the Assad regime (or its Iranian allies) or Islamic State, all of which are enemies of the U.S.-supported Kurds.

The area controlled by the regime is by far the most secure of Syria’s three separate regions. [But, for instance, in] the restive Daraa province in the southwest, [there has been] a renewed small-scale insurgency against the Assad regime. . . .

As Islamic State’s caliphate disappears from Syria’s map, the country is settling into a twilight reality of de-facto division, in which a variety of low-burning insurgencies continue to claim lives. Open warfare in Syria is largely over. Peace, however, will remain a distant hope.

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More about: ISIS, Kurds, Politics & Current Affairs, Syrian civil war, Turkey