The Forgotten Story of the Jewish Tavernkeepers of Poland and Russia

While Jews imagining their East European past are unlikely to think of their ancestors eating and drinking alongside Christians in Jewish-owned establishments, the most famous Jew in Polish literature is a tavernkeeper. Because of Polish landowners’ desire to lease their rights to distill liquor to Jews, and itinerant Jewish merchants’ need for kosher food, nearly half of 18th-century Polish Jews were involved in the liquor or tavern-keeping business in some way. Glenn Dynner, in conversation with Nachi Weinstein, explains how the history of the Jewish tavern exposes much about the nature of East European society, anti-Semitism, and even the development of Jewish law.

Read more at Seforim Chatter

More about: Anti-Semitism, East European Jewry, Jewish history


Iran’s Calculations and America’s Mistake

There is little doubt that if Hizballah had participated more intensively in Saturday’s attack, Israeli air defenses would have been pushed past their limits, and far more damage would have been done. Daniel Byman and Kenneth Pollack, trying to look at things from Tehran’s perspective, see this as an important sign of caution—but caution that shouldn’t be exaggerated:

Iran is well aware of the extent and capability of Israel’s air defenses. The scale of the strike was almost certainly designed to enable at least some of the attacking munitions to penetrate those defenses and cause some degree of damage. Their inability to do so was doubtless a disappointment to Tehran, but the Iranians can probably still console themselves that the attack was frightening for the Israeli people and alarming to their government. Iran probably hopes that it was unpleasant enough to give Israeli leaders pause the next time they consider an operation like the embassy strike.

Hizballah is Iran’s ace in the hole. With more than 150,000 rockets and missiles, the Lebanese militant group could overwhelm Israeli air defenses. . . . All of this reinforces the strategic assessment that Iran is not looking to escalate with Israel and is, in fact, working very hard to avoid escalation. . . . Still, Iran has crossed a Rubicon, although it may not recognize it. Iran had never struck Israel directly from its own territory before Saturday.

Byman and Pollack see here an important lesson for America:

What Saturday’s fireworks hopefully also illustrated is the danger of U.S. disengagement from the Middle East. . . . The latest round of violence shows why it is important for the United States to take the lead on pushing back on Iran and its proxies and bolstering U.S. allies.

Read more at Foreign Policy

More about: Iran, Israeli Security, U.S. Foreign policy